Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, the German family-owned drugmaker, withheld or failed to preserve “countless” files sought by patients suing over the company’s blood thinner Pradaxa and must pay a fine of almost $1 million, a judge ruled.

U.S. District Judge David Herndon in East St. Louis, Illinois, who’s overseeing more than 1,700 consolidated lawsuits over claims that Pradaxa caused excessive and sometimes fatal bleeding, concluded that Boehringer executives acted “in bad faith” by failing to ensure that documents and files about the drug’s development and marketing were preserved.